The Piper Alpha Disaster
The North Sea Piper Alpha disaster of 1988 was the worst coastal canvas and gas disaster in history. Performing in 167 losses with the utmost of those suffocating in poisonous smothers that developed after a gas leak set off the blasts and started a major fire.
More lately, woeful incidents at canvas and gas installations in the US, Argentina, Venezuela and Japan have served as a timely memorial of the ruinous human, fiscal and ecological impact of a fire. These events punctuate the need for fire safety to be given high consideration.
When a fire occurs at a refinery, coastal installation or petrochemical factory, the electrical systems that serve critical areas similar as control apartments, process outfit, ventilation, sprinklers, admonitions and other emergency systems must remain functional.
The fire protection of electrical raceways or
cable trays that act as conduits for lines supporting these process-critical functions is thus of vital significance to drivers.
As well as mollifying against the fiscal counter accusations that loss of property and dislocation to ongoing product brings, a robust, well designed fire protection system can help disastrous loss of life and ruinous environmental impact.
A good starting point when considering the specification of similar systems is the American Petroleum Industry (API) 2218, Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing Shops, which offers guidance for “.. opting, applying, and maintaining fireproofing materials that are designed to limit the extent of fire- related property loss in the petroleum and petrochemical diligence.”
According to API 2218, “ The top value of fireproofing is realised during the early stages of a fire when sweats are primarily directed at shutting down units, segregating energy inflow to the fire, actuating fixed repression outfit, and setting up cooling water aqueducts.”
A number of options are available to drivers for furnishing hydrocarbon fire protection to cable trays including calcium silicate boards, intumescent and ablative coatings, ceramic fibre robes and endothermic mats.
Each of these materials have different parcels, which drivers should estimate in order to select the most applicable system for the conditions of their specific operation.
When specifying fire protection systems for string charger operations, specifiers should consider a number of criteria, including The proven capability of the system to maintain circuit integrity under fire
System inflexibility conditions
System weatherability conditions
Weight cargo capacity
Total system installation cost
All fire-resistant systems should be tested in agreement with assiduity norms in order to ascertain how the system will perform when subordinated to a high intensity hydrocarbon fire.
API 2218 recommends UL1709 (or functional fellow) as the primary standard for hydrocarbon fire testing. UL1709 reaches 1100 °C within five twinkles, and maintains that temperature for the duration of the test.
API 2218 also recommends that critical wiring and control systems be defended for 15 to 30 twinkles to UL1709 or original testing if the control wiring is used to spark emergency systems during a fire. An estimable materials supplier will be suitable to force applicable attestation to validate similar testing.
This refers to the reduction of a string’s capability to conduct electricity and can be tested through the use of IEEE 848 Standard Procedure for the Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire- Defended Lines.
The advanced the position of sequestration handed to a string, the lower current it can conduct without threat of damage from overheating.
Thus, if a string is derated by 40 percent it can only be used to conduct 60 percent of its ambient capacity.This can have major counter accusations on design cost, footmark and overall system weight.
The choice of fire protection system should reflect conservation governance and possible conditions for unborn string differences. A further fixed system will be delicate to re-up for examination and upgrade of cable trays.
The position and position of exposure of a string charger can vary greatly as can the weatherability performance of fireproofing accoutrements.
Systems exposed to high situations of liquid or vapour may bear fresh face protection similar to a top fleece or face cladding. UL 1709 testing includes a standard set of exposures for weatherability and chemical forbearance as part of its normal testing protocol
Weight Cargo Capacity
Weight Cargo capacity of cable trays will have an influence on the weight, and thus type of fireproofing materials which can be applied.
Total System Installation Cost
Total system installation cost should be estimated based on the total material costs, labour and installation costs, anticipated life cycle and the associated conservation and relief costs.
When upgrading installations, dislocation to ongoing operations as a result of system installation should also be a crucial consideration.
Specifiers are increasingly turning to endothermic material for hydrocarbon protection of string charger
operations due to its inflexibility, cost effectiveness and performance parcels. The term “ endothermic” describes a response in which the material absorbs energy from its surroundings in the form of heat.
When exposed to high temperatures, endothermic materials release chemically-bound water to cool the external shells of the material and significantly slacken heat transfer.
Endothermic material is generally supplied in‘ mask or mat’ form furnishing the inflexibility for installers to wrap the material around critical areas of all types including cable trays, conduit, outfit veils and other electrical systems.
Unlike traditional hydrocarbon fire protection materials similar as featherlight cementitious and intumescent coatings, endothermic materials bare minimum medication to install, with no need to high or recoat the substrate.
In addition, endothermic robes reduce the possibility of mortal error in mixing and operation, while significantly reducing installation time, destruction and mess.
A further benefit of the system’s inflexibility allows it to be installed fluently and maintained with nearly no dislocation to girding areas.
The product is also re-enterable and can be removed and reinstalled for quality examinations or unborn adjustments.
Advanced endothermic materials can be used for both internal and external operations and offers excellent performance in numerous fire scripts, including large hydrocarbon pool fires in agreement with UL 1709 (ASTM E 1529).
Hutaib Electricals , a leading cable tray manufacturer in India(h2) has been using these protective measures considerably around the world for over 30 times and is ideal for effective fire safety results for both coastal and onshore energy surroundings. As a major hazard, reducing the number of dangerous circumstances and perfecting safety norms should be crucial precedents. The nonstop development and operation of new technologies that can ameliorate safety performance is thus vital.
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